Whether you’re a student, a busy worker, unemployed, or somewhere in between, you need various skills to move forward in life. One such skill is critical thinking.
So much has been written about critical thinking that the skill has almost become a cliche, but if we’re being honest, we could all use a bit of a brush-up on our critical thinking skills. Why?
Well, first of all, because we believe in the power of constant progress, and secondly, because critical thinking has a much deeper purpose than its basic, cliche interpretation.
And that’s what the purpose of this article is - to show you facets of critical thinking you might not be aware of.
Before we see what they are, let’s first give you a brief overview of critical thinking.
What Is Critical Thinking?
We all know what critical thinking is (more or less), but actually explaining it is kind of a daunting task. Is it a skill? A process? An approach? An ability?
Well, it’s all of the above, really. Critical thinking is a complex undertaking that entails clear thinking and the reevaluation of facts, existing thoughts, and proper judgment. It’s the ability to logically connect ideas and understand the deeper context. According to Michael Scriven & Richard Paul.
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness.
So, critical thinking as a skill encompasses other skills such as detailed analysis, the creative approach to solving problems, deeper reasoning, linking ideas, thoughts, and emotions, and so on.
These aren’t skills you can excel at overnight - they’re things you constantly work on, research, question, develop, and expand on. That’s why some are better critical thinkers than others - it all depends on how much you’re willing to evolve throughout life, as well as how much life is going to force you to evolve.
That said, there are many things mistaken for critical thinking, but if you can define the skill (at least in your own terms) you’ll know how to improve it and what changes it can bring to your everyday life.
Let’s dive deeper into this issue in the following section.
Critical Thinking Definition
Critical thinking is:
- active and effective thinking;
- successfully navigating your way through today’s data-loaded world;
- knowing how to ask the right questions;
- meant to help you reach higher levels of clarity;
- the ability to conceptualize and synthesize information;
- much more than just solving problems or thinking about random stuff;
- taking a walk in someone else’s shoes;
- connecting chunks of information in a meaningful manner;
- paying attention to contextual clues, evidence, and different perspectives;
- being open to the unknown and highly inquisitive;
- an intellectual undertaking;
- key to having better career opportunities, relationships, friendships, and overall quality of life;
- a purposeful engagement;
- reflective thinking and mature reasoning;
- deep and detailed interpretation, analysis, and evaluation of facts;
- curiosity and flow of thoughts;
- a type of thinking pattern that develops over time;
- creative problem solving;
- distinguishing between positive and negative feedback;
- owning your behavior, thoughts, tastes, and views;
- being driven by a plethora of “whys” and “hows”;
- not being afraid of how others will accept you (and your thoughts, beliefs, and views).
Critical thinking isn’t:
- accepting someone else’s thoughts, opinions, convictions, and explanations blindly, just because they’re accepted by the vast majority;
- full of negative overtones;
- being judgemental;
- reaching a permanent “thought destination”;
- acting on false beliefs and out-dated patterns;
- something you can learn by heart;
- being biased and seeing the world only through your lens;
- adopting someone else's belief system only because they’re a family member/friend/colleague/partner;
- obsessive thinking;
- thinking you can arrive at a single, absolute truth;
- imposing your own views and critical thoughts on others;
- soaking up new information without checking sources;
- passive thinking;
- something you can get overnight;
- considering only a single perceptive (usually the one that sits well with us);
- communicating only with people who see eye to eye with you.
The History of Critical Thinking
The term critical thinking is said to come from the Greek term critical, that is, κριτικός = kritikos = "critic", and it implies a critique.
Critical thinking has its humble beginnings in Plato’s and Socrates’ teaching practices. Namely, Socratic questioning is a great example of a neatly-developed critical thinking strategy, as it highlights the importance of questioning in the learning process. There are six types of Socratic questions:
- Questions for clarification:
- Why do you say that?
- How does this relate to our discussion?
- Questions that probe assumptions
- What could we assume instead?
- How can you verify or disprove that assumption?
- Questions that probe reasons and evidence
- What would be an example?
- What is....analogous to?
- Questions about viewpoints and perspectives
- What is another way to look at it?
- What is a counterargument for...?
- Would you explain why it is necessary or beneficial, and who benefits from it?
- Questions that probe implications and consequences
- What generalizations can you make?
- What are the consequences of that assumption?
- What are you implying?
- Questions about the question
- What was the point of this question?
- Why do you think I asked this question?
Throughout history, there were many thinkers who contributed to the overall understanding and development of the term. There’s Thomas Aquinas in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance period which brought forward the thoughts of many European scholars regarding the questions of religion, art, human nature, law, and so on. Then, we have Descartes in France and his Rules for the Direction of the Mind. Hobbes and Locke also strove to have people’s minds open up to new ways of learning and analyzing. We also have Richard W. Paul - a leading scholar in critical thinking.
Whichever period we focus on, and whichever scholar we analyze, there are some critical thinking commonalities that seem to be universal:
- the constant need to reevaluate and question everything;
- challenging traditional forms of thinking;
- checking sources and their credibility;
- interlinking ideas;
- having clear objectives and various means to obtain them.
Why Is Critical Thinking Important?
It’s a well-known fact that critical thinking is one of the most beneficial skills to date, but when it comes to actually explaining why, it turns out that very few people can answer this in-depth. That’s why we’d like to dwell on all the reasons behind this magnificent skill, and its implications for our overall being. So, in this section, we’ll discuss all the perks that come with having this skill and developing it further.
First and foremost, critical thinking is said to encourage curiosity. Curiosity is such an interesting human trait - it’s the desire that propels us to gain a deeper understanding of the world around us, people, situations, feelings, and so much more. By engaging in critical thinking, you develop your curiosity further. In essence, we believe critical thinkers to be curious by default.
Next, critical thinking strengthens your creativity, but there’s a big correlation between the two anyway. It’s only logical that critical thinkers are creative doers too! Mind you, we aren’t referring to creative artists, as in writers, painters, graphic designers, filmmakers, and the like - we’re referring to creative doers in general. You can be creative even in the way you clean your room! Yep, you read this one right!
Critical thinking is also said to make you a better problem solver. Let’s face it - no one likes solving problems, but we all have them, so why not become better at handling them? Having a critical approach helps you consider your problem from a different point of view and you start asking questions before you make a final decision such as:
- What’s the issue here?
- Am I missing anything?
- What else should I take into account?
- Am I hurting anyone with my decision?
- What if….?
Note: we’ll deal with such useful questions in different contexts a bit later on in this article).
Finally, critical thinking supposedly helps the brain form new, better pathways - in other words, the more you work on your critical thinking skills, the smarter you become.
How to Develop Critical Thinking?
Understand why you want to develop it in the first place.
This may sound silly, because who wouldn’t want to be a critical thinker, right? But, it’s really important to be honest with yourself from the beginning - do you think critical thinking is just a fancy skill to have or you really want to work on becoming a better version of yourself? Do you feel upgrading your brain can be beneficial?
Identifying the reasons behind your wish to work on these skills can help you achieve better and faster results.
Never stop asking questions.
Never - and we mean it. Now, we’re not saying you should walk around asking 30 questions per minute like a five-year-old (really, it’s what kids do when they walk around with their parents), and annoy everyone around you.
What we’re implying, however, is that you should always strive to go deeper into the matter. If you’re not sure you fully understand something, or you’re finding it tricky, ambiguous, or you simply need more info to form an opinion - by all means, do ask follow-up questions! Not asking the necessary questions can keep you stuck in cycles of guessing and predicting, whereas asking the right questions and getting proper answers can only bring you closer to your goal(s).
Always be an active observer, and never swallow information passively. Be mindful of what you accept to be true, and what you perceive to be fake. This can be tough, which is why you need to apply the previous step carefully (your answers lie in asking the right questions).
That said, you will skip things - it’s human to let things slip by you, but the more of an active observer you become, the less you’ll ignore the reality around you. This takes practice, patience, and diligence.
Follow up with research. Always.
If someone said there are 7 million people that have died from starvation this year alone, would you believe them? If you were told there were 100 traffic accidents in your city this year, would you find this credible? When someone tells you something, do you focus on the credibility of the information or you’re more heavily dependent on the person that tells you whatever they’re telling you?
Would you react the same if these two pieces of information came from a person you’ve met on the street, someone on the news, or a person from academia?
In other words: check everything - every single detail of a story, news, claim, whatever. Sometimes, double-check.
Have an opinion, but keep an open mind.
Lastly, even when you believe you have arrived at a final answer or have finally formed an opinion about a specific thing - don’t immediately shut down other possibilities. Keep an open mind - something may happen that will force you to re-evaluate the whole situation.
A critical thinker is always open to new ideas, suggestions, interpretations, and proof.
Examples of Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
At School/ Work
Whether your school days are far gone and you’re a worker who wants to work on their critical skills, or you’re still part of some form of educational context - it’s never too late for improvement. In fact, the more you develop your critical thinking skills, the better your whole outlook on life seems to be. Plus, according to an article published on Edutopia
Creative opportunities -- the arts, debate, general P.E., collaborative work, and inquiry -- are sacrificed at the altar of more predigested facts to be passively memorized. These students have fewer opportunities to discover the connections between isolated facts and to build neural networks of concepts that are needed to transfer learning to applications beyond the contexts in which the information is learned and practiced.
We believe the same concept applies to non-students too. We’re overwhelmed with data and tons of irrelevant information that we’re unable to distinguish between what matters and what doesn’t.
That’s why we decided to deal with these two categories (school and work) separately - as we believe they're equally important and worthy of useful details. Plus, we’re here to help, regardless of whether you’re a skilled worker or a devoted pupil. Critical thinking knows no age limits, and neither do we! :)
Let’s get onto it, shall we?
Can you develop critical thinking at school? Of course. Do all schools do it? Not really. In fact, critical thinking isn’t supposed to be a separate subject - all subjects are meant to trigger this critical response. And even if they do, that isn’t something that’s supposed to stay within the school walls only. It’s meant to mix with practical life skills too. In other words, critical thinking should be part of our everyday life (hence the title of this section).
By the way, did you notice how we didn’t say “Can you teach critical thinking at school?”, but we used the term “develop”? Critical thinking isn’t something you teach or impose on pupils - it’s a skill you can encourage.
How to approach this?
There are many ways you can work on your critical thinking skills in any given school setting. That said, the problem is we are taught to accept the stuff we learn at school as the ultimate truth - so we take everything for granted. You can take small steps toward changing this. For example, it’s enough to start double-checking everything - don’t rely on a single source, but do your own research.
Below we have a more detailed list of questions that can help you even further:
- Should I take everything the teacher says/does for granted? Can I find other perspectives on this topic/subject?
- Do I have to agree with everything that’s written in the books? What do I agree with? What do I disagree with? Why?
- What’s the point of this subject? What’s this subject supposed to teach me? What can I get out of these lectures?
- Am I able to differentiate between important chunks of information and irrelevant passages?
- Do old-school teaching techniques apply to all subjects? And vice versa - does the modern way of teaching help understand more traditional concepts?
- Why has this subject been this way for so long?
- How can I better approach the subjects I find boring/challenging?
- Is this information I can use in everyday life? If yes, how?
Many may argue that not all job positions allow for critical thinking, but we beg to differ. As we already mentioned, we see critical thinking as a way to approach life in general, and that applies to your everyday job too. For starters, if you have a job position that doesn’t encourage critical thinking, it’s wise to ask yourself whether that specific job is truly aligned with your desires (we’ll get onto the specific questions in a minute).
In general, irrespective of your specific job and qualifications, there are many benefits to using critical thinking skills in your workplace, such as:
- making better and more objective decisions;
- greater job satisfaction;
- gaining a deeper understanding of your tasks, position, and responsibilities;
- being well-informed;
- increasing your chances to get promoted;
- self-reflection after your workday;
- becoming more competitive in the job market.
How to approach this?
There are many methods and ways to achieve greater intellectual freedom and have a more critical approach in your workplace. Becoming a critical thinker/worker isn’t easy, but ultimately it’s rewarding. Again, you’re not doing it to only be a great worker - the skills you’ll develop stay with you regardless of whether you remain in the same company, change positions, or are even jobless for some period of time.
Anyway, if you want useful ideas about how you can slowly start shifting your mindset, here are some questions to help guide you in the process:
- Am I as good as I can be at my job?
- How do I react when I disagree with another employee or even with my boss? Can I react better?
- In what areas in my work am I often subjective?
- How do I talk to my superiors/ subordinates? Is our communication purely professional or we operate on a friendly basis too?
- Am I paid enough for what I do? Do I need to earn more? What’s preventing me from getting the promotion I long for?
- What truly motivates me - is it my actual job, the salary, the work environment, or something else entirely? And vice versa - what demotivates me?
- If I have procrastinating episodes, what’s the reason behind them? Do I postpone some activities because I believe I’m not good enough to complete them, or?
Making a Purchasing Decision
People don’t necessarily enjoy spending money, but they do enjoy buying things for themselves and their loved ones. Our purchasing decisions are heavily influenced by marketing strategies and well-planned ads, now more than ever. We think we’re consciously choosing the stuff we buy, but is that really so?
With influencers promoting products on various social media channels, TV ads, banners, the emails we receive from random subscriptions, persuasive shop assistants, and word-of-mouth marketing, we’re unaware of the constant influx of information which affects our purchasing behavior. And in case you need further confirmation, take a look at these mind-blowing digital marketing statistics for 2020:
- 69% of Millennials experience FOMO (Fear of Missing Out), and this includes all age groups;
- the biggest things that create FOMO among Millennials are travel (59%), parties and events (56%), and food (29%);
- 79% of US consumers said that free shipping would make them more likely to shop online;
- 90% of people who recalled reading online reviews claimed that positive online reviews influence their buying decisions.
In essence, your purchasing behavior is part of various marketing statistics based on what you decide to buy and how you decide to go about it. In the past, if you needed a new shirt, you went to the nearest shop, you looked at the shirts on offer, and simply bought one.
Nowadays, if you need one, you scroll through various social media profiles whose taste matches yours, look at Amazon deals, go to the nearest mall, consult your friends, look for recent discount deals, search for promo codes, and so on. Only after having gone through these various methods will you buy THAT shirt.
How to approach this?
You don’t need to feel like a slave to modern marketing and/or contemporary buying habits. You can rationalize and criticize each piece of information before you act on it. You don’t need to buy an item only because someone promoted it, or because it’s on a sale. You don’t have to change your current iPhone for the latest one only because it’s new and in.
You really don’t. Although everything makes you feel as if you’re supposed to follow certain purchasing trends. That’s why whenever you need to buy something, ask yourself the following questions:
- Is this an example of FOMO (Fear of Missing Out), or is this item something I really need at the moment?
- How is this product going to add value to my life?
- Is this item really that special, or it’s just that the advertisement makes it look so?
- Is this person really competent to tell you whether this product is good or not? (For instance, Instagram influencers binge eating junk food on a daily basis while promoting running sneakers and healthy smoothies).
- Do I need to save my money for something more important than buying ____?
- Do I trust the reviews published on this website? How do I know they’re reliable? Plus, how do you compare both positive and negative reviews - which one stands out?
- How much do I know about this specific product?
- Which blogs, influential people’s posts, websites, newspapers, magazines, and forums are in my highest good to read and follow?
Instagram posts and stories.
What about other types of media?
How do we navigate our way through such a plethora of digital information? How do we differentiate between important information and irrelevant information? Between truthful and fake? Well-intentional vs manipulative?
You get the point.
It seems that the more we have access to versatile information, the less we’re able to understand what’s true and what isn’t. We aren’t to blame, though. It’s mind-blowing to even start thinking about the amount of information that reaches us on a daily basis.
So, how do we filter all of it? We guess each of us has their own filter - their own mind, their own system of emotions, and their own set of critical thinking skills.
How to approach this?
Before we dwell on the “how to approach this” aspect, it’s important to understand that each of us is on the lookout for different types of information. For instance, what someone may consider to be significant information could be totally neglected by someone else.
So, we basically follow news, data, and content which aligns with our system of values, thoughts, and possibly our upbringing. Hence, the level at which we’re able to develop our critical thinking skills will heavily depend on the input and prior knowledge we possess.
Now, the list of questions we’ve included should help you in determining the truthfulness of the pieces of information that reach you (both verbally and in a written form). Of course, this isn’t an exhaustive list, but it’s meant to show you the basics, and you can proceed from there, in any way you feel corresponds to your needs.
Let’s take a look at the questions:
- Who published this? What do I know about the writer? Are there any relevant sources included?
- Is the speaker truly knowledgeable about the topic? Also, do they walk the talk?
- Does the author have a personal agenda? If yes, what is it?
- Is this piece of information conveying an objective message? How can I tell?
- Can I fully trust advertisements, sponsored content, and very intense marketing campaigns? What are their true intentions?
- Is this piece of information trying to manipulate me? Why is it provided in the first place?
- Is the person representing themselves or another interest? What is this person’s agenda?
- Can you differentiate between a sponsored review and an authentic one? Which signposts should you be on the lookout for?
Finally, remember that evaluating information doesn’t require only critical thinking - it requires critical reading and critical listening too!
Interaction with people can be beautiful, but also very challenging. That’s because each person brings their own thoughts, beliefs, and emotions into the mix - so depending on the person you’re dealing with, things can run smoothly or they could become very toxic.
Having said that, the biggest challenge we face when we’re communicating with others is putting our feelings aside and rationally approaching a specific situation. This isn’t illogical though, as interpersonal relationships are based upon feelings, above all.
However, that doesn’t mean we can’t or shouldn’t try to be critical. Being critical doesn’t mean we want to argue and/or criticize others. It means we’re willing to look at the situation from a higher perspective.
Plus, it’s not just about the other person - it’s as much about ourselves too. By interacting with others, we certainly learn a lot about ourselves. Now, that truly calls for critical thinking! Mind you, a lot of people are either way too self-critical or totally subjective about themselves.
We want to invite you to have a middle ground approach - be critical, but don’t criticize yourself. Again, ask yourself about your experiences with others. Feel them, and release them. Think about some patterns that you feel repeating with others.
Do you feel your close friends are always mocking you? Are your parents yelling at you constantly? Or maybe you feel like a victim to the world and think you should be the one to always please others?
Whichever pattern you have going on in your life and interpersonal relationships, it can be solved and understood if you know the right questions to ask yourself.
How to approach this?
Evaluating our own life can be tough. We may come across things we don’t necessarily want to know, see, or understand about ourselves, but the more we’re willing to do so, the better our lives can become.
Now, you may wonder: “Ok, I understand how to apply the critical thinking skills in a given school or work context, but am I supposed to do the same with people?! Am I supposed to focus on a plethora of questions while actually communicating with others?”
And while we fully understand your concern, the truth is, our minds are almost constantly buzzing with questions. Why not make them better? Here are our suggestions, but please feel free to contribute with more:
- Am I projecting my wounds and problems onto this person? What can this person teach me about myself? Am I being the best version of myself in the presence of this person?
- Am I free to express my emotions, concerns, and ideas in front of this person? Why (not)?
- Can I take the advice this person has given me?
- Do I wish to spend more time with your family? What’s keeping us apart? Can I initiate more frequent contact?
- How impartial am I when it comes to judging my partner/ friends/ family members?
- If I’m in a toxic relationship, why do I attract the same type of partner over and over again?
- How content am I in my intimate relationships? Do I think there’s room for improvement? If yes, what changes can I do starting today?
- Do I have people in my life who are emotionally unavailable? How’s my relationship with them?
- Do I consider myself to be a good friend/ partner/ colleague/ sister/ brother/ parent?
Famous Critical Thinking Quotes
We always love reading what others have said about a specific issue, not because we necessarily agree with all of them, but because such quotes trigger our own reasoning and critical thinking process.
This is why we’d also like to invite you to critically approach reading this selection of famous quotes - just because Aristotle, Napoleon Hill, or Josh Lanyon have said or written something, it doesn’t mean you should completely agree with it.
Contemplate on it first - how do you feel about this specific quote? Does it align with your own system of values? If yes, why? And if not, why not? Deep down there’s always some sort of explanation about why we feel the way we do about certain things.
And if there are other quotes this section brings to mind, do share them with us in the comment section below! We’d love to hear from you!
"You have a brain and mind of your own. Use it, and reach your own decisions."
"It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it."
“The purpose of critical thinking is... rethinking: that is, reviewing, evaluating, and revising thought.”
“Whenever we hear an opinion and believe it, we make an agreement, and it becomes part of our belief system.”
“If there was one life skill everyone on the planet needed, it was the ability to think with critical objectivity.”
“All you know is what I told you.'
Philip nodded. 'That's right.'
'So did it occur to you that I might have left something out? That I might only have told you the evidence that supported the case I was trying to make?”
“The most fundamental attack on freedom is the attack on critical thinking skills.”
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What is the purpose of critical thinking?
The main purpose of critical thinking is to allow people to challenge existing norms, think clearly and rationally, link relevant ideas and patterns, and consider opposing arguments.
It’s meant to equip people with the necessary skills, confidence, and knowledge to question all they do, say, and mean in order to create a better version of themselves. It also helps strengthen interpersonal relationships - as critical thinkers tend to develop deeper friendships and partnerships and show a great level of care and affection for others.
Critical thinking is also meant to assist people in their workplace by making them better workers, but above all, it’s meant to assist humans in their development and help them lead a better and more valuable lifestyle.
What are the disadvantages of critical thinking?
While there aren’t any disadvantages to being a critical thinker and excelling at critical thinking (since this is a highly beneficial skill, as we already pointed out many times in our article), there are certain side effects you should take into account.
First of all, people may find this critical thinking activity to be taking up much of their time, and in a society that forces us to scroll fast through images and texts, and spend only a couple of seconds per “story” on social media, this could prove to be a daunting task.
Also, depending on what you’re being critical toward, you may find yourself challenging many of your old beliefs, patterns you adopted while you were growing up, and/or you might even have to face many things you used to be comfortable neglecting.
What defines a critical thinker?
A critical thinker is defined by the following qualities and features:
- a great power of observation;
- noticing details, and knowing how to use them;
- a curious character;
- criticism supported by facts, arguments, and proof;
- objectivity and introspection;
- willingness to communicate openly with others without judging or blaming;
- active listening skills;
- analytical thinking;
- understanding their own thinking patterns, beliefs, and behaviors;
Why is critical thinking difficult?
Critical thinking may be a difficult task for some because they haven’t trained their minds to think critically, and because they’re not willing to get to the meat of the matter. They probably find it easier to make decisions fast, instead of focusing on analyzing patterns, information, and thoughts more thoroughly. Also, they may have a tendency to rush things, as we live in such a fast-paced world (so spending more time on “things” that can be solved much faster is pointless for some).
Also, for many it could simply be a time-consuming task (although we believe critical thinking should be used on a daily basis, which we already highlighted a couple of times throughout the article anyway).
Suggestions for Further Reading
As we strongly believe in constant improvement, we like to share with you a selection of materials worth checking out. While theory and books are never a substitute for real life, they sure are a nice starting point.
Here’s what we chose:
- Critical Thinking: Your Guide to Effective Argument, Successful Analysis and Independent Study, by Tom Chatfield
- Thinking, Fast and Slow, by Daniel Kahneman
- The Art of Thinking Clearly, by Rolf Dobelli
- Factfulness: Ten Reasons We're Wrong About the World and Why Things Are Better Than You Think, by Hans Rosling
- Black Box Thinking: The Surprising Truth about Success, by Matthew Syed
- A More Beautiful Question: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas, by Warren Berger
- Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking, by M. Neil Browne
- Don't Believe Everything You Think: The 6 Basic Mistakes We Make in Thinking, by Thomas Edward Kida
- Weaponized Lies: How to Think Critically in the Post-Truth Era, by Daniel Levitin
- The Fallacy Detective: Thirty-Eight Lessons on How to Recognize Bad Reasoning, by Hans Bluedorn and Nathaniel Bluedorn
To sum up, critical thinking is more than just a useful skill. It’s a way of leading life with greater purpose and meaning. Working on your critical thinking skills can bring improvement in all areas of your life.
If you want to know how we can assist you even further check out our critical thinking course and see whether you resonate with it. Investing in yourself can be one of the most rewarding things you can do for yourself.
Finally, having critical thinking skills isn’t about being good at critical thinking - it’s about excelling in all other areas in your life.
Let us help you! :)
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